Bitcoin is the first and most well known cryptocurrency. It is a type of digital currency that doesn’t have any kind of centralized management or oversight from bank’s or governments . In it’s place, peer to peer software and cryptography are used.  All Bitcoin transactions are tracked in a public ledger, a copy of which is kept on servers located across the world.

In actuality, it is a type of digital currency that is not controlled by any state, Nation or financial institution, It transferable worldwide without the need for a centralized middlemen and has a well established monetary system that some would argue cannot be changed.

A system of politics, philosophy and economics can be more accurately characterized as Bitcoin. This is due to a mix of the technical elements , It incorporates , the vast range of players and stakeholders it engages, and the protocol modification procedure.

The term Bitcoin can be used to describe both the financial unit know as the BTC and the Bitcoin system.

Initially introduced in secret to a small number of programmers in January 2009, Bitcoin is today a widely traded financial asset with a daily settlement volume estimated to be in the tens of billons of dollars. It is most frequently regulated as either a currency or a commodity, with different degrees of restrictions and is legal to use in all significant economics ( Despite regional variations in it’s regulatory position)

El Salvador was the first Nation to require the use of Bitcoin as legal money in June 2021.


   Table of contents 

1. The history, development, and origin of bitcoin. 

2. What purposes does it serve?

3. The fundamental characteristics of bitcoin

4. Economic aspects of bitcoin

5. Who defines what Bitcoin is?


The history, development, and origin of bitcoin.

The concept of Bitcoin—a peer-to-peer electronic cash system—was outlined in a white paper published in 2008.

In the paper, techniques were describe for  ‘‘ enabling any two willing parties to deal directly with each other without the requirement for a trusted third party ”. The technology used to address the ‘‘ double spend ” issue allowed for the first time of scarcity in the digital sphere.

Satoshi Nakamoto is the papers listed author, a supposed Alia’s for a person or organization whosee real identity is still unknown. On January 9th 2009, Nakamoto published the first open – source Bitcoin software client, enabling anybody to start utilizing Bitcoin’s.

The novelty of Bitcoin as a new way to exchange wealth in the online world was what first spurred the network’s growth. The majority of the early proponents were ‘’cypher-punks” or those who promoted the use of secure encryption and privacy enhancing technologies as a means of bringing about social and political change. But very quickly, adoption was significantly influenced by speculation about Bitcoin’s potential worth.

Over the ensuring ten years, both the price of Bitcoin and the number of it’s users grew steadily. A large number of Bitcoin exchange’s created banking link’s, making it simple to transfer local Cash to and from Bitcoin, as regulators in key Nation and other cryptocurrencies . As more prominent investors expressed interest in the asset, other companies developed strong custodial service, facilitating institutional investors access to it.

What purposes does Bitcoin serve?

Bitcoin was developed as a means of online money transfer. The goal of the digital currency was to offer a different form of payment that would function without centralized management but otherwise function similarly to traditional currencies.

Even small value transactions could be settled using Bitcoin in it’s early years, when network participation was low, and it could compete with other payment network’s like Visa and mastercard in doing so ( Which in fact settle transactions Long after point of sale ) scaling problems, however, reduced it’s competitiveness as a means of exchange for low-value good’s as it’s use become more widespread. In another words, due to the limited throughput on the ledger and the absence of second -lager solutions settling small-value transactions became unaffordable. The idea that it’s  value is primarily as a gold substitute, or Digital gold rather than as a payment network, was backed by this. The claim made in this instance is that Bitcoin’s value derived from a mix of the technological advancements it incorporates, It’s limited supply and built into the code monetary regulation, and it’s strong network effects. Regarding this, the investing thesis holds that Bitcoin might displace gold and eventually turn into a type of  ‘‘ Pristine collateral ” for the world economy.

The idea that Bitcoin promotes economic independence is another common one. This is allegedly accomplished by offering, On an opt in basis, a different form of currency that has rebust diffences against  (I) monetary seizure, (ii)  Censorship, and Devaluation through unchecked inflation. Please take note that this narrative and the ( Digital Gold ) story are not incompatible.


The fundamental  characteristics of Bitcoin 

  • Decentralized :  The CEO of the Bitcoin network does not exist,nor is it owned or controlled by anyone instead, the network is made up of members who are willing to participate and who accept a protocol’s norms ( which takes the form of an open source software client ). Changes to the protocols must be approved by a majority of it’s users, and a variety of users including ‘‘ Node’s ’’ end users, developers, miners, and members of related industries like exchanges, wallet providers, and custodians have the opportunity to contribute. Though, it’s a system that is somewhat political. In comparison to the dozens other cryptocurrencies already in use. Bitcoin is perhaps the most decentralized, Which is thought to reinforce it’s position as ideal collateral for the world economy.

• Distributed :  The Block Chain is a public ledger that serves as the repository for all Bitcoin transactions. The network depends on users running the Bitcoin protocol software and freely storing copies of the ledger.  These NODE’S assist in the proper propagation of transactions throughout the network by adhering to the protocols regulations as established by the software client. Since there are already more than 80,000 Nodes spread out over the globe, it is virtually impossible for the network to have outage or data loss.

• Transparent :  The consensual and transparency rules of the protocol are followed to determine who owns how much Bitcoin, as well as the addition of new transactions to the Blockchain record and the current status of the Bitcoin network. 

   Peer-to-peerEven if Nodes record and spread the network’s state ( the truth ), payments actually travel from one person or company to another. As a result, there is no requirement for any “trusted third party” to serve as a middle Man. 

   • Permissionless : There are no restrictions on who can use it and no Bitcoin account is necessary. The network will confirm any and all transactions that adhere to the protocol’s requirements using the specified concensus procedures.

• Pseudo Anonymous :  The use of these coin does not necessarily need the disclosure of identity information. Transactions are instead connected to addresses, which are aphanumeric characters that are produced at random.

• Censorship Resistant :  Authorities find it challenging to forbid people from using Bitcoin or to take their assets because all Bitcoin transactions that adhere to the protocol’s rules are legitimate, transactions are Pseudo-anonymous and users control the key to their Bitcoin holdings . This has significant ramifications for economic freedom and could potentially serve as a global brake on dictatorship.

• Public : Every Bitcoin transaction is documented and made publicly accessible to everyone. This essentially eliminates the chance of fraudulent transactions, but it also sometimes makes it easy to Link particular Bitcoin addresses to specific individual identities. There are several initiatives to improve Bitcoin’s privacy, but how they are included into the protocol will ultimately depend on how Bitcoin’s governance works.


 Economic aspects of bitcoin

   • Fixed supply : One of the fundamental assumptions behind the Bitcoin protocol is that the total supply would eventually grow to 21 million coins. This fixed and known total quantity, it is said, qualities Bitcoin as a  (Hard Asset) one of several features that have influenced how valuable investors view it to be.
   • Disinflationary : The code has a set schedule along with a rate at which new bitcoins are added to the circulating quantity that eventually declines. The issuance rate of bitcoins decreases by half typically every four years, starting at 50 bitcoins per block (a new block is created every 10 minutes or so). The third halving, which took place in May 2020, decreased the number of bitcoins issued every block from 12.5 to 6.25. At that time, 18.375,000 of the 21 million coins had been “mined,” or 87.5% of the total. Up until about the year 2136, when the last halving will cut the block reward to only 0.00000168, the supply will be reduced by four halves, from 3.125 BTC in 2024 to 3.125 BTC in 2036.
   • based on incentives : A core group of participants—known as miners—contribute the resources required to upkeep and secure the network because they are motivated by financial gain. Miners compete to add new blocks to the chain that makes up the ledger using the Proof-of-Work (PoW) method (the blockchain). In a decentralized manner and in accordance with game-theory driven concepts, the hardware and energy expenditures related to PoW mining contribute to the network’s security. In this context, the profit motive is regarded as crucial. Furthermore, as miners frequently sell the bitcoin they have earned to pay for their sizable mining-related expenses, the mining process is viewed as a just mechanism for evenly distributing bitcoin.
 Who defines what Bitcoin is?

The protocol used by Bitcoin is dynamic. It will continue to develop and can and has incorporated changes over the course of its existence. Although there are several formalized processes for updating Bitcoin (see “How does Bitcoin governance work?”), the protocol’s governance ultimately relies on consideration, persuasion, and volition. So, the definition of Bitcoin is determined by the public.


There have been few times where there have been big differences among the community over the course that Bitcoin should go. When such disputes cannot be settled by discussion and persuasion, some users can choose choose to accept a different version of Bitcoin.



The alternate form of Bitcoin that has the most supporters is currently known as BitcoinCash (BCH). It came about as a result of a suggestion to address scaling issues that had increased transaction prices and lengthened confirmation times. On August 1st, 2017, this version of Bitcoin was launched.


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